定期テストの初見問題で出た問題なのですがBの(2)の線で引いた問題(空欄補充・画像1枚目の13行目の真ん中辺りにあるgeneration (2) generationの問題です。)の答えがなぜ(エ)afterなのかが分かりません。
次の英文を読み、 下記の設問 (A~D) に答えなさい。 In the last few decades, people all over the world have been told that humankind is on the path to equality, and that globalization and new technologies will help us get there sooner) In reality, the twenty- first century might create the most unequal societies in history. Though globalization and the Internet bridge the gap between countries, they threaten to enlarge the gap between classes, and just as humankind seems about to achieve global unification, the species itself might divide into different biological types. Inequality goes back to the Stone Age. Thirty thousand years ago, hunter-gatherer tribes buried some members in grand graves filled with thousands of ivory beads, bracelets, jewels and art objects, while other members had to (7)settle for a mere hole in the ground. ( 1), ancient hunter-gatherer tribes were still more egalitarian* than any succeeding human society, because they had very little property. Property is a condition for long-term inequality. Following the Agricultural Revolution, property multiplied, and with it inequality. As humans gained ownership of land, animals, plants and tools, hierarchical** societies emerged, in which small elites monopolized wealth and power for generation (2) generation. Hierarchy, then, came to be recognized not just as the model, but also as the ideal. How can there be order without a clear hierarchy between elites and ordinary people, between men and women, or between parents and children? Authorities all over the world patiently explained that just as in the human body not all parts are equal, so also in human society equality will bring nothing (3) disorder. In the late modern era, however, equality became an ideal in almost all human societies. It was mainly due to the Industrial Revolution, which made the masses more important than ever before. Industrial economies relied on masses of common workers, (4) industrial armies relied on masses of common soldiers. Governments invested heavily in the health, education and welfare of the masses, because they needed millions of healthy workers to operate the production lines and millions of loyal soldiers to fight in the wars. with ti own no (3) of sup horizo partic again A. Consequently, the history of the twentieth century revolved around the ( 5 ) of inequality between classes, races and genders. Though the world of the year 2000 still had its share of hierarchies, it was かなり nevertheless a much more equal place than the world of 1900. In the first years of the twenty-first century people expected that the egalitarian process would continue and even speed up. In particular, they hoped that globalization would spread economic growth throughout the world, and that as a result people in India and Egypt would come to enjoy the same opportunities and privileges as people in Finland and Canada. An entire generation grew up on this hope. Now it seems that this hope might not be fulfilled. Globalization has certainly profited large portions of humanity, but there are signs of growing inequality both between and within societies. Some groups increasingly monopolize the fruits of globalization, while billions are left behind. Already today, the richest hundred people together own more than the poorest four billion. This could get (6) worse. The rise of Al (Artificial Intelligence) might eliminate the economic value and political power of most humans. At the same time, improvements in biotechnology might make it possible to translate economic inequality into biological inequality. Soon the super rich might be able to buy life itself. If new treatments for extending life and for upgrading physical and intellectual abilities prove to be expensive, a huge biological gap might open up between the rich and the poor. By 2100, the rich might be more talented, more creative and more intelligent than the less advantaged. Once a real gap in ability opens between the rich and the poor, it will become almost impossible to close it. If the rich use their superior abilities to enrich themselves further, and if more money can buy them more efficient bodies and brains, B B V
with time the gap will only widen. In less than one hundred years from now, the richest one percent might own not merely most of the world's wealth, but also most of the world's beauty, creativity and health. (a) The two processes together might therefore result in the separation of humankind into a small class of superhumans and a majority comprising useless Homo sapiens. Globalization will unite the world horizontally by erasing national borders, but it will at the same time divide humanity vertically. Ruling parties in countries as diverse as the United States and Russia might unite and make common ( 7 ) against the rest of humankind. *egalitarian: 平等主義の**hierarchical 階層性の A. 本文中の下線部 (ア~ウ)の文中での意味に最も近いものを、それぞれ下記(a~d)の中から1つ選び記号で答えなさい。 (7) settle for be satisfied with 5. punch on 2. be ordered out of あ. build up (1) fruits . desserts v () translate V. fairs 5. eggs V. addition . keep V. turn 5. interpret Ž. hold B. 本文中の空所 (1~7) に入れるのに最も適当なものを,それぞれ下記(a~d)の中から1つ選び記号で答えなさい。 v(1) . Accordingly V. Therefore 5. Nevertheless z. Besides U (2) . or beyond 5. later Ž. after (3) あ.else V. but (4) . despite while ~ (5) あ.reduction (6) あ. ways > deep ž. less (7) . cause V. crime 5. reason Ž. people VC. 本文中の二重下線部(i, i)が文中で表している内容に最も近いものを,それぞれ下記(a~d)の中から1つ選び記号で答えなさい。 ✓✓(i) property multiplied, and with it inequality 5. than Ž. benefits 5. until 5. increase う. far Ž. much Ž. that ž. opposition . Society became fairer as a result of the increase in home ownership. V. Biological quality expanded as the gap between rich and poor widened. 5. The prices of real estate were boosted by a lack of inequality. 2. Equality decreased as some people possessed more goods and land than others. (ii) The two processes B73 $400! 5= D DJ C (BA 13 . globalization combined with the disappearance of the super rich development of biotechnology coupled with the rise of AI 5. improvements in biotechnology paired with weakening of the rich 2. the advance of Al matched with the capacity of robots D. 次の英文(あ~き)の中から本文の内容と一致するものを3つ選び記号で答えなさい。 ただし、その順序は問いません。 b. Until the beginning of the twenty-first century, globalization and the development of technology helped to divide humanity. People in the Stone Age lived in poorer societies compared with people in any other era in history. 5. During the Industrial Revolution, society needed the power of ordinary people. 2. The world in the twenty-first century is a wonderful place compared to past societies. 3. People believed that globalization and economic development would give everybody in the world an equal basis on which to succeed. 5. The wealthiest one percent of the world population is also the healthiest. . By the end of the twenty first century, the world's richest people may be able to purchase biologically modified bodies and brains.