10-2 Expressing the Past: Necessity, Advisability, Expectation PRESENT:(a) Julia has to get a visa. (b) Julia has got to get a visa. (c) Julia must get a visa. Past necessity: had to In (d): had to needed to: Julia needed to get a visa. There is no other past form for must (when it rmeans neceasity) or have got to. PAST: (d) Julia had to get a visa. PRESENT:(e) I should study for the test. I want to Past advisability: pass it. (f) lought to study for the test. (g) T had better study for the test. should have ought to have + past participle In the past, should is more common than ought to. The past form of had better (had better have) is almost never used. PAST: Ifailed the test. (h) Ishould have studied for it. (i) lought to have studied for it. (i) I shouldn't have gone to the movies the night before. The meaning in (h) and (i): Studying was a good idea, but 1 didn't do it. I made a mistake. The meaning in (j): It was a bad idea to go to the movies. I made a mistake. Usual pronunciation of should have: “should-ev" or “should-e." lao was/were supposed to: unfulfilled expectation or obligation in the past PRESENT:(k) We are supposed to leave now. PAST: (1) We were supposed toleave last week. PRESENT:(m)The mail should be here. Should have + past participle: past expectation The speaker expected something to happen%; it may or may not have occurred, as in (n).. PAST: (n) The mail should have been here by now.